Colon cancer is among the cancer types with increasing incidence rate in our time. This is the most common cancer type following lung cancer in men and following breast cancer in women. Primary symptoms of colon cancer are bleeding in the stool, change in the properties of defecation (constipation, diarrhea), stomachache, weight loss and listlessness, pallor and anaemia.
As in the most of the cancer types, reason of this disease is not known; but it is known that some measures are effective in protection process. These include reducing fat and meat types in diet, consuming plenty of fruits and vegetables and intake of calcium. Among these, in particular, consumption of meat should be highlighted. Excessive consumption of red meat cooked by being exposed to directly heat such as grill is one of the important risk factors known for large intestine cancer. Meat consumption should be reduced to avoid colon cancer and calcium-rich diet should be respected. Last but not least, regular bowel screening should be conducted. The symptoms should be detected earlier prior to their emergence and it should be detected and treated while polyp is in evolution phase before even cancer occurs. Polyps are benign mass at the beginning formed in large intestine but they grow over time and become cancer.
Primarily, guaiac faecal occult blood test is conducted for early diagnosis. However, the studies conducted in recent years have revealed that guaiac faecal occult blood test is not sufficiently sensitive. Thus, colonoscopy conducted at intervals of 5-10 years is more effective method in being protected from cancer. The biggest advantage of this procedure is to detect polyps that are precursor lesions of cancer and to extract them during colonoscopy in the same time.