All patients having a significant operation such as kidney transplantation may face with some complications even if very rarely. These are operational complications, organ rejection, hypertension, change of kidney functions and headache. Patients are followed closely for fast treatment of post-transplantation operation complications.
Complications Of The Operation
There may be bleeding in the operation site during the operation or in the first hours after the operation.
A clot may form in vena and enter systemic circulation.
Urine leak and inflammation may be observed in urinary canal.
Organ transplanted may not function or start to function late.
The most significant complication after the kidney transplantation operation is the rejection of kidney transplanted. It is the rejection of new kidney by the body and start of attack against it by the immune system.
|Three types of rejections may be observed:|
|Hyperacute Rejection||It is the rejection occurring immediately after the operation. It is observed very rarely. Blood type compatibility and antibody against kidney transplanted in your body has been examined by your physician before the operation.|
|Acute Rejection||It is observed within a few days after the transplantation operation. Your body reacts to kidney transplanted and starts to see the kidney as a foreign tissue.|
|Chronic Rejection||It is a rejection type observed months even years after the operation and progressing slowly.|
Blood and tissue type compatibility of the patient is examined before the transplantation to minimize the risk of rejection and drugs suppressing and controlling immune system are used after the operation. Rejection may occur at any time after the transplantation in spite of these drugs. It is observed within the first three months mostly.
The most significant reason is the insufficient blood level of drugs used to suppress immune system. Rejection doesn’t mean that new organ will be lost. Physicians will administer treatment alternatives by the type of rejection try to protect the organ.
How Is The Rejection Determined?
Rejection can be prevented if determined at the beginning in other words in early period. First signs can be determined by the organ transplantation team frequently. For this reason, you should be controlled in time. Doctors can diagnose rejection by blood tests and if necessary taking biopsy from the kidney transplanted with ultrasonography.
How Is The Rejection Treated?
In the event of organ rejection, blood levels of agents suppressing the immune system are examined. It is doubted due to increase of blood creatinine level however, diagnosis is verified by kidney biopsy. Doses of agents are adjusted or additional agents may be initiated or agents used may be changed. Treatments such as lasmapheresis can be administered if necessary.
What should be done to prevent rejection?
• It is quite significant to use immunosuppressive drugs as recommended and in dose specified and regularly and in time.
• Drug blood levels and kidney functions should be controlled in recommended periods.
• The nurse and physician should be informed in the event of diarrhea and vomiting making absorption of drugs by the intestine difficult and action should be taken as recommended by them.
Hypertension the condition of going up of blood pressure may be observed in patients having kidney transplantation due to drugs. As an action for it, blood pressure should be frequently measured and blood pressure should be controlled in the same arm on the same hours and as rested for minimum 30 minutes and diet should be followed and salt should be excluded.
Blood glucose of the patient having kidney transplantation may increase due to immunosuppressive drugs they use and diabetes diagnosis may be established. For it, maintaining a careful diet and exercising regularly and correct administration of diabetes drugs are significant.
Change Of Kidney Functions
Immunosuppressive medicines may lead to deterioration of kidney functions. In this case, reduction of urine, darkening of urine color and sense of burning, shunt pain findings for inguen that the kidney has been transplanted may be observed. In the event of fatigue not ending by resting, you should consult the doctor. Moreover, water and liquid should be consumed sufficiently and you should avoid stress.
It may be observed as a side effect of medicines administered after the kidney transplantation. Lack of sleep and stress may occur. In this case, analgesics other than recommended by the doctor shouldn’t be used.
To prevent organ rejection, it is required to suppress your immune system. But this also weakens the strength of your body to fight with infection. In the first period after transplantation, you should be careful for protecting yourself against especially infections.
Simple actions to be taken to protect against infections:
• Sufficient, healthy and balanced nutrition
• Exercising regularly and controlling your weight.
• Avoiding crowded and closed spaces. Mask should be worn in very crowded spaces
• Avoiding people with flu, cold and cold sore. Vaccines against winter infections should be applied as recommended by the doctor.
• Hands should be washed frequently. Tooth brushing is significant.
• You should avoid areas of smoking and not go out in polluted air if you are not obliged.