Pediatric cardiology starts on day 14 of fecondation. Blood vessels showing pulsation as of day 15 of pregnancy in the development of embryo form the heart in the upcoming days. As of week 16 of pregnancy, heart of fetus can be examined by means of fetal echocardiography.
Congenital cardiac diseases are the most frequently determined anomalies in infants and seen in 1% of all births. It constitutes 8-12% of pediatric cardiac diseases.
Environmental factors (poverty, hunger, lack of hygienic factors) more dominant than the genetic are in the forefront. Active or passive smoking during pregnancy results in pathological changes in the veins of embryo or fetus.
Congenital cardiac diseases arise from the fact that the heart cannot complete the usual development period in the womb. Risk factors for congenital cardiac diseases include kin marriage, congenital cardiac disease of the mother or father, various infections especially in the first 3 months of the pregnancy, exposure of radiation during pregnancy, mother’s diabetes mellitus, severe nutrition disorder of the mother, environmental insufficiencies (lack of selenium,etc.) and various genetic diseases.
If congenital cardiac diseases involve the muscle tissue of the heart (matrix), valve disorders will occur mostly. Mitral stenosis, mitral valve atresia, aorta valve stenosis, artresia, bicuspid or unicuspid aortic valve, pulmonary stenosis and atresia may occur. Moreover, congenital mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs during development of matrix of heart. MVP is inherited by the child from the mother and results in mitral valve failure and surgical treatment is necessary. Acquired MVP cases can be seen as a
complication of rheumatismal carditis cases.
The frequent congenital cardiac disease in our country is congenital cardiac anomaly known as hole in the heart. Developmental disorders in ventricle and atrium, holes between ventricle and/or atrium, location anomalies of heart in thoracic cage (located on the right, left or in the middle of thoracic cage), problems of veins entering or exiting from the heart, stenosis and/or failure of cardiac valve and coronary vascular anomalies are congenital cardiac diseases.