It is rheumatismal carditis seen between the ages of 5-15 generally. Rate of cardiac involvement at the age of 5 or before is high. Mitral valve involvement is widespread in girls and aortic valve involvement is widespread in boys. Findings of disease can be minimized or lost by means of a disciplined treatment. In severe cases, cardiac surgery may be necessary. Influenza, pneumonia, viral bronchitis can be seen in the period of infancy (1-month and 2-years old) and myocarditis or pericarditis can be seen during the period of incubation or recovery period of childhood diseases (measles, rubella, mumps, pertussis, polio, varicella). Today, childhood diseases are eliminated completely or minimized by vaccines. However, vaccination should be controlled in a disciplined and very strict manner in infancy and all of age periods.