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Other Pediatric Cardiac Diseases


Cardiomyopathy is the replacement of endocardial, fibroelastosis, myocardium cells with a compact tissue. The life can continue for a while in localized cases. If the lesion is disseminated, heart transplantation is the only treatment. Dilated cardiomyopathy progresses with cardiac failure. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disorder is in the forefront. 

Kawasaki and infective endocarditis are the primary diseases of cardiovascular inflammatory diseases. Kawasaki is seen in children under five years of age. Since it is a disease involving coronary arteries, early diagnosis and treatment is life saving. Infective endocarditis is a serious, chronic disease leaving sequel due to bacteria such as staphylococcus. It can be treated and also it results in infected coagulation in vital organs such as brain and kidneys.

Systemic diseases such as lupus, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, acute gloemrulonephritis result in inflammation in myocardium and valves. Cardiac involvement may show parallelism with regression and recovery of systemic disease.


“Dysrhythmia is a frequent cardiac disease. It is the disease of regions constituting conduction system and stimulation (generator). There are benign dysrhythmia and also dysrhythmia leading to cardiac failure, syncope and even sudden death may be seen in children.

Sinusal arthymia or respiratory arthtymia are generally benign. It can be seen in normal children at the rate of 20%. Proximal supraventricular tachycardia is seen in girls during or before the period of adolescence more. The heart rate is 300/min. The child expresses the situation as “my heart is flickering in my chest”. It stops mostly with some maneuvers. Complete cardiac blocks and atrial fibrillation are significant dysrhythmia. Pace-maker is used for the cases not treated with medications. Defective conduction system of the heart can be treated with radiofrequency method with electrophysiological works.

Heart Failure

It is a frequent table in congenital and acquired cardiac diseases. There are efficient medications for it. If there is a congenital defect or acquired cardiac disease, it can be treated and the heart failure is eliminated. 

We see systemic hypertension in especially obese children. Obesity forms the basis for metabolic syndrome and coronary cardiac disease in the adult ages. Active and especially passive smoking in children being effective on vascular endothelium constitutes a significant danger for cardiac diseases. Other significant table seen in the age of childhood is “pulmonary hypertension.” It is especially seen in the cases that surgical treatment of congenital cardiac diseases is late (Secondary PH). Primary PH is seen in boys in the age of 13-15 genetically. It is a progressive table. Heart and lung transplantation may be efficient. 

Adams-Stokes Syndrome progressing with syncope in children and “long QT syndrome” seen more frequently genetically can be treated with pace-maker implantation.